Gradu Tantum Non Ordine

‘I have ever declared my opinion to be, that episcopus et presbyter gradu tantum differunt, non ordine [‘bishop and presbyter differ only in degree, not in order’], and consequently, that in places where bishops cannot be had, the ordination by presbyters stands valid; but the ordination made by such presbyters as have severed themselves from those bishops to whom they have sworn canonical obedience, I cannot excuse from being schismatical. I think that churches that have no bishops are defective in their government, yet, for the justifying my communion with them (which I do love and honour as true members of the church universal), I do profess, if I were in Holland I should receive the blessed sacrament at the hands of the Dutch, with the like affection as I should from the hands of the French ministers were I at Charenton.’

— Abp James Ussher, in a letter to Dr Nicholas Bernard


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